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CO2 is sequestering by enhanced weathering with Olivine. Olivine is a common mineral avaliable anywhere on the earth's subsurface. It reacts simply with the CO2 (acid) from the atmosphere. The chemical reaction is Mg2SiO4 + 4CO2 + 2H2O => 2Mg2+ + 4HCO3- + SiO2. Herewith, Olivine takes up 1 time its own weight on CO2. The final products of the reaction are silicon dioxide, magnesium carbonate, and small amounts of iron oxide. greenSand prevents acidification of (agricultural) soil and water, making an optimal lime substitute and a sustainable soil nutrient. Have a look at the research of, among others, Deltares, Moveres, Delft University of Technology and Utrecht University about Olivine and CO2.
Applied, technical and scientific research: The Olivine Foundation SmartStones
In the foreground prof.dr. Olaf Schuiling in an Olivine quarry in Spain
The speed of the weathering process over the entire lifespan and the sequestering of CO2 depends on several factors. The particle size, temperature, acidity and the presence of water and organic acids determine the speed. As a rule of thumb: the finer the Olivine and the more humid the environment, the faster the weathering. The weathering rate is adjusted to the origin and fraction of the certified Olivine and recorded in greenSand CO2 Certificates.
greenSand is a natural lime substitute. By weathering Olivine, CO2 is sequestering into silicate, bicarbonate and magnesium. It is a chemical reaction between an acid (CO2 = carbonic acid) and the alkaline mineral olivine.
The bicarbonates (= lime) counteract the acidification of the soil by increasing the pH level. 1 kg of greenSand equals 1.43 kg of lime. And the released magnesium is an important nutrient for producing chlorophyll (green of the leaf).
greenSand is a durable, very strong and beautiful mineral that is suited to the most versatile applications. greenSand in pure form within civil (re)-design projects makes CO2-neutral execution possible.
CO2 emissions can be reduced up to 100% by compensating the expected CO2 emissions with greenSand CO2 Certificates. Easy to use processes in garden and tree substrates are recording CO2 and give greenSand dosed nutrients. Optimal for an airy, loose soil and the key to healthy root structure.
More about Olivine and its applications: Olivine The Philosopher's Stone